Elephant populations in the Mountain Conservation Area consist of the Mt Kenya sub-population, estimated at 2,500 elephants by VanLeeuwe 2016, the Aberdares sub-population estimated at approx. 3,570 elephants by Vanleeuwe 2017 anda total of 8,021 elephants in the Laikipia-Samburu-Meru-Marsabit ecosystem.
Today these sub-populations are threatened and fragmented. Rapid human population growth and conversion of forest and rangelands into agricultural farm lands has resulted in increased human-elephant conflict problems around Mt Kenya. Elephants cause enormous damage through crop raiding and fence and property destruction, reducing livelihood and food security within affected communities. The Mount Kenya elephant corridor allows elephants from the forests on the north of the mountain to move further north and west to the Ngare Ndare forest, Lewa Wildlife Conservancy, Borana and other protected areas and vice versa.